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Supporting research

Research that backs up the above messages

Decision making

  • Personal growth and self-awareness: Critical thinking promotes introspection and self-awareness, helping individuals to examine their own beliefs and values, recognize cognitive biases, and develop a more nuanced understanding of the world. This self-reflection can lead to personal growth and the ability to adapt to new challenges (Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2007). Critical thinking: The nature of critical thinking).

  • Decision-making: Critical thinking skills are essential in the decision-making process, as they enable individuals to consider multiple perspectives, weigh the pros and cons, and anticipate potential consequences. This leads to better, more informed decisions that can improve personal and professional outcomes (Halpern, D. F. (1998). Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains).

  • Education: Studies have shown that students who demonstrate strong critical thinking skills perform better academically. They are more effective at evaluating information, synthesizing ideas, and making connections across disciplines. This helps them to excel in their studies and prepare for the challenges they will face in the future (Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2007). Critical thinking: The nature of critical thinking).

  • Swami, V., Voracek, M., Stieger, S., Tran, U. S., & Furnham, A. (2014). Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories. Cognition, 133(3), 572-585. This study found that individuals with a more analytical thinking style, which is associated with critical thinking, were less likely to believe in conspiracy theories. The authors suggest that promoting analytical thinking could help to reduce the endorsement of conspiracy theories.

  • Lobato, E., Mendoza, J., Sims, V., & Chin, M. (2014). Examining the relationship between conspiracy theories, paranormal beliefs, and pseudoscience acceptance among a university population. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(5), 617-625. This study found a positive correlation between the endorsement of conspiracy theories and belief in paranormal phenomena and pseudoscience. The authors suggest that a lack of critical thinking could be a contributing factor to the acceptance of such beliefs.

  • van Prooijen, J. W., & Douglas, K. M. (2017). Conspiracy theories as part of history: The role of societal crisis situations. Memory Studies, 10(3), 323-333. This study discusses how societal crises and uncertainty can contribute to the development of conspiracy theories. The authors argue that promoting critical thinking and skepticism could help people to better evaluate the evidence and reduce the likelihood of endorsing conspiracy theories.

  • Ståhl, T., & van Prooijen, J. W. (2018). Epistemic rationality: Skepticism toward unfounded beliefs requires sufficient cognitive ability and motivation to be rational. Personality and Individual Differences, 122, 155-163. This study found that individuals with higher cognitive ability and motivation to be rational were more likely to show skepticism towards unfounded beliefs, including conspiracy theories. This suggests that enhancing critical thinking skills could help in resisting conspiracy thinking.

Innovative strategy

Problem-solving: Critical thinking equips individuals with the ability to analyze and solve problems creatively and efficiently. It encourages an open-minded approach that helps in identifying the root cause of a problem, evaluating possible solutions, and making informed decisions (Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction).

Communications & teamwork

  • Career success: Employers highly value critical thinking skills in the workplace, as they contribute to improved problem-solving, decision-making, and innovation. Employees with strong critical thinking abilities are often more adaptable, better at analyzing complex situations, and more likely to find creative solutions, which can lead to career advancement (Ricketts, J. C., & Rudd, R. D. (2005). Critical thinking skills of FFA leaders).

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